Sphincter of Oddi Manometry
The sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) through ducts from the liver and pancreas into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) describes the situation when the sphincter does not relax at the appropriate time (due to scarring or spasm). The back-up of juices causes episodes of severe abdominal pain.
When symptoms are severe, standard treatment is to perform an endoscopic procedure called ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). ERCP is a highly specialized procedure for the examination or treatment of the bile duct and pancreatic duct. It combines the use of x-rays and an endoscope that is passed down to the duodenum, where the bile duct and pancreatic ducts drain, and a dye that is injected into the ducts.
An additional procedure, sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM), involves passing a catheter into the bile and/or pancreatic duct during ERCP to measure the pressure of the biliary and/or pancreatic sphincter. It is considered the gold standard to diagnose Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.
Treatment depends on what is found. It may often involve cutting the muscular sphincter (sphincterotomy) to remove any stones or to relieve any scarring or spasm of the sphincter.
SOURCE: IFFGD website (iffgd.org)