Irritable Bowel Syndrome
An estimated 10 to 20 percent of Americans experience symptoms of IBS, but only about 15 percent of those affected seek medical help. Symptoms of IBS include:
- Abdominal Pain
- Excessive Gas
- Constipation, Diarrhea, or both.
Symptoms of IBS typically come and go, and may range from severe to having no symptoms at all.
When to see a doctor
Ongoing changes in bowel habits or other symptoms of IBS should be evaluated by a doctor. These signs and symptoms could indicate a more serious condition like colon cancer. You should also see a doctor if you experience more serious symptoms including:
- Losing weight
- Rectal bleeding
- Excessive diarrhea
- Unexplained vomiting
- Difficulty swallowing
- Abdominal pain or cramping that isn’t relieved after a bowel movement or passing gas
The exact cause of IBS is unknown, but these factors seem to be related:
Intestine muscle contractions – Muscles in the lining of the intestine help move food through the digestive tract. These muscles may contract more or less than normal and cause issues. Stronger contractions may cause bloating, gas, or diarrhea. Weaker contractions than normal slow down digestion, which could lead to hard stools and constipation.
Nervous system abnormalities – In some cases, the nerves in the digestive tract may overreact to changes that normally occur during digestion. This may cause pain, constipation, or diarrhea.
Instine inflammation – Some people with IBS have inflammation in the intestines due to an increase in immune-system cells in the digestive tract. This could cause diarrhea and pain.
Infection – IBS may develop following severe diarrhea caused by a virus or bacteria. An overgrowth of bacteria in the intestines is also associated with IBS.
Changes in microflora – The good bacteria in the gut (microflora) are an important part of digestive health. Some research shows that microflora in IBS patients may be different.
There are several triggers of IBS:
Food: Many people see an increase in IBS symptoms when they eat or drink certain foods. This includes carbonated drinks, milk and other dairy products, cabbage, beans, citrus fruits, and wheat.
Stress: Stress does not cause IBS symptoms, but it can aggravate symptoms. Most people with IBS see an increase in symptoms when they have more stress.
Hormones: IBS affects women more often than men, which may indicate hormones play a role. Some women find that symptoms of IBS increase around the time of their menstrual cycle.
IBS Risk Factors
Some risk factors that may increase your chances of experiencing symptoms of IBS include:
- Age: People under age 50 are more likely to have IBS
- Gender: Females are twice as likely to have IBS.
- Family History: Having other family members with IBS means you are more likely to have IBS. Researchers have not concluded if this is related to genetics, environment, or a combination of both.
- Mental Health: People with depression, anxiety, or other mental health issues are more likely to have IBS.
There is no definitive test for IBS, and the symptoms can be identical to several other intestinal disorders. Your doctor will review your medical history, perform a physical exam, and select tests that can rule out other conditions that may be causing your symptoms.
Other gastrointestinal conditions that have similar signs and symptoms are malabsorption, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis / Crohn’s), and microscopic and eosinophilic colitis.
Treating IBS often uses a combination of approaches, including diet changes, stress relief, and in some cases medication to control symptoms. It may take time to find the right combination that works for you. IBS treatment focuses on relieving and preventing symptoms.
IBS treatment is a long-term process due to the chronic nature of the condition. It’s important to let your doctor know about your symptoms, concerns, and stressful situations that may trigger IBS.
IBS Diet Changes
As a first step, you may try:
- Eating high-fiber foods
- Staying hydrated & drinking plenty of water
- Staying active / exercising regularly
- Getting plenty of sleep at night
A low FODMAP diet has been helpful to some IBS patients.
Your doctor may recommend removing the following from your diet:
Foods that cause gas: Some foods cause more gas in the digestive system. These include carbonated beverages, alcohol, caffeine, raw fruit, legumes (beans), and cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower.
Gluten: Some patients have found relief by eliminating gluten from their diet, even if they don’t have celiac disease.
Lactose: Temporarily removing lactose from your diet can help determine if your symptoms are related to lactose intake. You can try removing lactose from your diet for two weeks to see if IBS symptoms improve. Lactose rich foods include milk and ice cream, but can also be found in other dairy products like yogurt and cheese.
Foods that may be easier for people with IBS include:
- Water, Ginger Ale, Sprite, and Gatorade
- Soy milk or rice milk
- Soy or rice-based products
- Plain pasta, plain noodles, white rice. No sauces or gravies
- Potatoes: boiled or baked. (no french fries)
- Breads: French, Italian, white bread, English muffins, and white rolls
- Plain fish, plain chicken, plain turkey, or plain ham
- Eggs: soft-boiled, poached
- Cereals: Plain Cornflakes, rice crispies, Corn or Rice Chex, Cheerios; dry or with soymilk or rice milk
- Salads: lettuce, hard-boiled egg slices, oil and vinegar dressing
- Cooked peas, carrots
- Margarine, jams, jellies, peanut butter
- Small amounts of: applesauce, cantaloupe, watermelon, honeydew melon
- Small amounts of: fruit cocktail, peaches, pears (canned, non-dietetic)
Anxiety and stress can worsen IBS symptoms in some people. Treatment for stress reduction will depend on the severity of your symptoms. You should discuss stress reduction techniques with your doctor as part of your treatment plan.
Counselors can help equip you with stress reduction techniques that may reduce your chances of developing symptoms of IBS.
If changes in diet aren’t effective, medications may help control the symptoms of IBS. There are no medications that treat IBS, but they can help control the symptoms.
The medications used will depend on your symptoms (e.g. diarrhea, constipation, or digestive pain).
Dealing with stress is one of the best ways to prevent IBS. You may try:
- Counseling: Studies have shown that counseling and psychotherapy can reduce symptoms of IBS. Counselors can teach you how to react differently to stress and difficult situations.
- Mindfulness training: Mindfulness is a stress-reduction technique that can help reduce anxiety.